In countries suffering from chronic water shortages, water distribution systems are often operated on an intermittent basis, leaving them unpressurised and allowing ingress of contaminated groundwater, particularly in areas lacking sewerage systems. The periods of stagnation can promote microbial regrowth, further compromising water quality. On the other hand, peaks in pressure and velocity in the pipe network lead to biofilm detachment events, thus releasing microbial cells that may escape the regular quality monitoring procedures and thus increase risk for the consumer. Finally, intermittent supply requires consumers to store water in household storage tanks, which often encourage bacterial regrowth. This paper reports on research undertaken in Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, the UK and Portugal, which provided an improved understanding of the factors controlling bacterial concentrations in intermittent supplies, and presents an overview of the most important aspects of water quality control in intermittently operated networks.

This content is only available as a PDF.