Various countries in the Mediterranean Basin and other arid and semi-arid regions are facing a gap between water supply and demand. This gap is closely linked with agricultural production and environmental issues. It is probably due to small amounts of precipitation and low availability of natural water sources. Special ventures have to be undertaken in order to supply water at adequate quality for all requirements. These can be accomplished by development of additional water sources that currently are considered marginal. The additional sources include saline ground water, treated wastewater and runoff water and are usually required to augment the limited supply from the regional conventional high quality local sources. The paper presented options for development of the marginal water sources in arid zones in conjunction with minimizing the dependence on high quality water. Domestic secondary effluent is a valuable water source for reclamation however, additional treatment is required to use it for unrestricted purposes. It can be achieved primarily by implementation of the membrane technology, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) stages.
Research Article| August 01 2003
Agriculture, water and the environment: future challenges
1Environment Water Resources, Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev Kiryat Sde-Boker 84990, Israel; and the Dept. of Industrial Eng. and Management Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel; and The Grand Water Research Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel
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Water Supply (2003) 3 (4): 51-57.
G. Oron; Agriculture, water and the environment: future challenges. Water Supply 1 August 2003; 3 (4): 51–57. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2003.0045
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