The world is facing a water crisis, and Australia is no exception. New regimes for the supply, use, and delivery of water are needed to ensure a sustainable water future. Black water reuse through ‘sewer mining’ or onsite treatment, proposes to be one initiative that may possibly offer a viable and sustainable alternative approach to water provision in many contexts. However, despite the potential benefits of black water reuse, its feasibility is not yet fully understood. In particular, there is much uncertainty surrounding the following issues: (1) community acceptance, (2) policy complexities, (3) performance impacts of these localised systems, and (4) environmental balance over the full life cycle. This paper outlines research needs surrounding black water reuse with a focus on these four major issues. The paper presents a research agenda to address these important issues. This research agenda involves two Australian commercial case studies: the Council House 2 building in Melbourne, and the Bendigo Bank building in Bendigo.