Most residents in developing countries suffer severe water shortage and often resort to self-supply. Unfortunately, some self-supply water sources contain disease-causing biological and chemical contaminants and require point-of-use (POU) treatment. However, recontamination and persistence of chemical contaminants occur, which defeats the aim of POU. This study aims to develop an affordable low technology system that effectively treats whole-house water sourced from borehole and rain without recontamination. Raw borehole water (RBW) was treated with KAl(SO4)2.12H2O (8.10 mg/L), Ca(OH)2 (68.21 mg/L) and NaOCl (1.875 mg/L) in two separate tanks and thereafter filtered through 5-micron and 0.5-micron carbon filters, and reverse osmosis system. The results showed that heterotrophic plate count (2,700 CFU/mL) and total coliform (378.00±21.25 MPN/100 mL) in RBW were reduce to zero, and total hardness was reduced by >83% after treatment and there was no recontamination. Chromium (0.05±0.002 mg/L), Cu (0.04±0.001 mg/L), Pb (0.09±0.001 mg/L), Fe (0.26±0.005 mg/L) and Mn (0.2±0.001 mg/L) in the RBW were reduced below detectable limits after treatment. The annual per capita cost of water treatment was estimated at N4,744.44 ($9.32) at per capita consumption of 100 L/day. Our technology shows exceptional promises in providing affordable and safe water to the entire household throughout the year.


  • Human population increase leads to increase in water demand and scarcity.

  • Streams, boreholes and rain serve as alternative water sources to most households.

  • Often, these water sources contain chemical and microbial contaminants.

  • The water was treat with an efficient low cost treatment technology.

  • The technology involves treatment of whole house water using coagulants, lime, chlorine, filters and reverse osmosis.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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