Groundwater is a crucial water resource for various usages worldwide. The Quetta Valley of Pakistan was investigated regarding its groundwater quality sustainability based on integrated approaches of hydrochemistry, geographic information system, and multivariate statistics. A total of 29 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells to get insights into the hydrochemical suitability of groundwater for sustainable irrigation and drinking utilization. The results indicate groundwater is mainly featured by the hydrochemical facies of HCO3·Cl-Ca. Groundwater hydrochemical composition is dominantly governed by the dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals in combination with positive cation exchange in the valley. Principal component analysis reveals a significant influence of geogenic factors on groundwater chemistry, further supported by PHREEQC simulation that detects a supersaturation of calcite, dolomite, and sulphate minerals in the aquifer. The irrigation water quality index divides groundwater in the study area into three zones, which signify low restriction and no restriction, except for a severe restriction in the southwestern part of the valley. Groundwater is generally suitable for irrigation across the valley. The entropy-weighted water quality index classifies groundwater as excellent and good quality for drinking. This study can provide crucial insights for authorities on groundwater suitability in Quetta Valley and similar regions worldwide.

  • The study aims to recognize hydrochemical fingerprints crucial for assessing groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation. By using traditional techniques, it combines multivariate statistical analyses and geographic information system-based methods for a nuanced understanding of hydrochemical parameters and their spatial distribution. The irrigation water quality index delineates zones for irrigation suitability, entropy-weighted water quality index for drinking ranking.

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