Optimal design of nitrification-denitrification (N-D) systems reduces to obtaining maximum denitrification subject to the constraint of efficient nitrification. Under constant flow and load conditions simple approximate highly accurate formulae are developed to describe the N-D system. Selection of the N-D configuration is found to be crucially influenced by the TKN/COD (influent) ratio, µnm, maximum and minimum temperature and sludge age. In terms of these factors design charts are presented which rapidly allow the best configuration and sizes of the anoxic and aerobic reactors to be selected.

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