The link between the need for operational control and the mathematical modelling of badly-defined environmental systems is examined. It is argued that the robustness of process models and control measures is more important than their sophistication. Because of the nature of such systems, control robustness can be effected in many cases through the exercise of experience and acquired expertise, formalised through expert systems and fuzzy set theory. It is argued that for the same reason, there is a duality between control and system identification and that classical identification methods should be tempered by the application of fuzzy sets and expert systems theory.

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