Various full-scale studies on the 5-stage Bardenpho process for biological phosphorus removal are reported with special reference to the role of readily biodegradable substrate in phosphorus removal. Results indicated that efficient denitrification was always a prerequisite for good phosphorus removal. The availability of fermencation products could greatly assist both nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Various options for the generation of these products are presented. Methods for the estimation of readily biodegradable substrates, of which fermentation products can be a component, are evaluated.

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