Of the high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems the UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor has found the widest application. Therefore the attention with respect to design, operation and economy will be focussed on this reactor type.

In designing a UASB reactor specific attention is needed for the GSS (Gas-Solids Separator) device and the feed inlet system.

For soluble wastewater generally no phase separation is required. Only for wastewaters high in suspended solids pre-acidification in a separate acidification reactor can be beneficial. Increasing attention is given to the development of modified UASB systems, such as a combination of a sludge bed reactor and an anaerobic filter.

Other possible modified UASB systems may be found in a FS (Floating Settling) UASB reactor, the EGSB (Expanded Granular Sludge Bed) reactor and the UASB IC (Internal Circulation) reactor. As many factors are involved in the costs of a UASB reactor, only some rough data on reactor costs are presented.

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