In the United States, Ascaris spp., Trichuris trichiura, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara spp. are the most commonly found viable parasites in both treated and untreated municipal sludges. As expected, heat treatment, thermophilic digestion (aerobic and anaerobic) and thermophilic composting were effective in parasite inactivation, and with good sludge digestion (both aerobic and anaerobic), the effectiveness of sludge lagoon storage and sludge drying beds to inactivate parasites and pathogens is greatly enhanced. At present two commercial sludge processes, Chemfixation and Ozonics treatment have shown potential to inactivate parasites.

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