South Africa is a relatively water-short country which has many rural communities with water-borne sewage infrastructures requiring low technology treatment facilities. In order to protect the water resources of the country the authorities have set high standards for effluent quality (COD < 75 mg/l, NH3 < 10 mg/l, E. coli < 1000 and in some areas P < 1 mg/l).

Traditionally, oxidation ponds have been used in these applications but have not been able to consistently meet the required standards and recently interest has been shown in artificial wetlands as a low technology means of solving the problem. As a result several experimental projects are at present being initiated in South Africa, both as primary and secondary treatment for domestic sewage and also as a tertiary treatment to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and E. coli from conventional sewage plant effluents.

The designs of these experimental projects are described in the paper and it is hoped that data will be available for presentation at the seminar.

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