Facultative pond performance data collected for the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) at four locations throughout the USA and data collected by others were used to evaluate the most frequently used design equations and to develop non-linear design equations. Empirical models were evaluated as well as the classical plug flow and complete mix models. The first order plug flow model gave the best fit of all the rational models. The empirical non-linear models did not fit the data, nor did the other empirical models with the exception being the areal loading and removal model. Attempts to verify the models developed with the USEPA data using data collected by others were not successful with the exception of the areal loading and removal model.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.