Stabilization Pond (SP) effluent is the most immediately available additional water resource for irrigation in semiarid areas as Israel. Evolution of SP design in Israel has been directed by the needs of irrigation reuse, which led to the enlargement of the storage capacity and improvement of treatment efficiency. The use of raw sewage for irrigation nay endanger public health, but safe use of wastewater can be achieved by various degrees of treatment which can improve effluent quality to sanitary standards. Algae and Zooplankton in SP effluents may clog drip irrigation networks but there are several alternatives to overcome the problem. The future challenge is to transform wastewater from a potential pollutant with disposal problems, into reclaimed effluent of high quality fit for unrestricted irrigation, by means of a cheap or even economically profitable system which should include biomass production.

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