The bioprocesses of steel industry wastes self-purification in buffer ponds have been studied. The representatives of 6-7 divisions of microalgae and many functional groups of bacteria have been found in the ponds. The important role of a new functional group, the “lytic” microorganisms, in the regulation of microecosystems and in bacterial self-purification has been established.
It was found that the activity of self-purification bioprocesses in the buffer ponds studied depends on a variety of ecological factors. The main limiting factor has been shown to be the high turbidity of water, and its deficit of dissolved phosphates and oxygen.
To accelerate the self-purification of steel industry wastes in buffer ponds the concentration of organic and mineral forms of the main biogenic elements (C,N,P) should be regulated. Water clarification and aeration were recommended and effectively used.