A common observation in high-rate oxidation ponds (HROP) is that pH riseswill usually be followed by decreases in algal production and in overall pond performance. It was found that pH has minor direct effects on algal production but has major indirect effects as it determines the ratios of the carbonate system species and the dissociation of ammonia in the pond. Thus, increased pH values may cause carbon limitation of algal production or free ammonia inhibition of algal photosynthesis in HROP.

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