Exhaustive field and laboratory studies were carried out for 3 years using pulp mill wastewater for crop irrigation. Anaerobically treated pulp mill wastewater used in the study falls under the class C3S1 to C4S2 and found suitable for use on coarse textured soils with salt tolerant crops. Crops like maize, barley, wheat, kenaf and sesbenia were grown successfully. Wastewater irrigation increases the soil exchangeable sodium per cent (ESP). The increase in ESP at the end of 3rd year was 30.0. However even at this level there was no appreciable decrease in yield of crops and hydraulic properties of soil. Soil equilibrium studies showed that if the pulp mill wastewater is diluted with chlorination and hypochlorite wastewater in either 4 : 1 or 3 : 1 proportions, the resulting wasteweter can be successfully used on coarse to medium textured soils without the problem of sodicity.
Impact of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater on Crop and Soil
A. S. Juwarkar, P V. R. Subrahmanyam; Impact of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater on Crop and Soil. Water Sci Technol 1 May 1987; 19 (5-6): 693–700. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1987.0248
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