Trials using submerged biological filters, made of moulded polyethylene and aerated by compressed air, are described. The tests included operation in an activated sludge type plant with sludge recycle as a single stage filter, and as the second, nitrification, stage of a 2-stage system. Observations on the type of biological growth formed and on the need to have good hydraulic conditions to prevent clogging are made. Some design criteria are given.
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S. Schlegel; The Use of Submerged Biological Filters for Nitrification. Water Sci Technol 1 April 1988; 20 (4-5): 177–187. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1988.0165
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