Abstract

The study aims to simultaneously control micropollutants and bromate formations by using ozonation and peroxone process. The batch experiments were run with variations in specific ozone dose (SOD) and hydrogen peroxide-to-ozone (H2O2/O3) ratio. Based on the removal by ozonation and peroxone, micropollutants were categorized into three groups: non-reactive compounds (i.e. amidotrizoate), moderately reactive compounds (i.e. metoprolol, acesulfame potassium, bezafibrate, and benzotriazole), and highly reactive compounds (i.e. carbamazepine and diclofenac). For ozonation and peroxone process, the removals for highly reactive compounds and moderately reactive compounds were 82–99% and 29–99%, respectively. The removal of amidotrizoate was not observed in this study. The effect of ozonation on micropollutant removals was similar to the peroxone process. However, differences in bromate formation were observed. Bromate formation depended on the SOD, while addition of hydrogen peroxide suppressed the bromate formation. The peroxone process at the H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.3 was recommended to bromide-containing water below 100 µg·L−1 for simultaneous control of micropollutants and bromate. Enhancement in micropollutant removals, except for the non-reactive groups, was achieved with either higher SOD or the addition of hydrogen peroxide to ozonation. The micropollutant removal predicted from the second-order kinetic reaction with ozone and •OH exposures was higher than the observed data.

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