The Holmberg/Olsson method for simultaneous adaptive dissolved oxygen control and oxygen utilisation rate estimation in the diffused air activated sludge process is evaluated (Holmberg and Olsson. 1985; Holmberg, 1986). Small offsets in the parameter estimates occur because the Q/V term is not included in the estimator model. Significant offsets may occur as a result of assumptions regarding the KLa/air flow rate relationship. Extensions are proposed to overcome the offset problems.

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