A brief review of recent developments in biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal technology is presented. Guidelines are outlined of how current understanding of these two removal mechanisms can be applied in the upgrading of existing wastewater treatment plants for biological nutrient removal. A case history dealing with the upgrading of the conventional activated sludge process located at Penticton, British Columbia, to a biological nutrient removal facility with a design flow of 18,200 m3/day (4.0 IMGD) is presented as a design example. Process components requiring major modification were the headworks, bioreactors and sludge handling facilities.

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