Mathematical models based on the kinetic aspect of the sequencing batch activated sludge process were developed to explain the characteristics of the process treating municipal wastewater. These models are a steady-state model dealing with the overall relationship between biomass concentrations in a reactor and operational conditions of the process, and a kinetic model dealing with the behaviors of biomass and substrate in a reactor within one cycle time of the process. Applying these mathematical models for the results of pilot-scale experiments for municipal wastewater treatment, reasonable parameters' values were obtained and the effects of operating strategies including the aeration time ratio and the solids retention time became clear for the process performance.

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