This paper reviews developments in the kinetics of biological excess phosphorus removal (BEPR) in nitrification denitrification BEPR (NDBEPR) activated sludge systems – development of polyp organism enhanced cultures, their kinetics, simplification of the kinetics for enhanced cultures under constant flow and load conditions, extention of the simplified model to mixed culture NDBEPR systems under constant flow and load conditions. The next stage will be the development of a general NDBEPR kinetic model valid for cyclic flow and load. Before such a model can be established, an important problem needs to be resolved – the kinetics of denitrification in NDBEPR systems; recent studies show that the specific denitrification rate due to slowly biodegradable COD is significantly higher in NDBEPR than in nitrification denitrification (ND) systems.

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