In situ tracing experiments have proved to be reliable tools to get direct information on subsurface flow direction and flow parameters. Beside dyes, salts, radioisotopes and drift bodies, microbes can be used as tracers. In several comparative experiments carried out in porous and karst aquifers by the International Association of Tracer Hydrology (ATH) the microbial markers (bacteria and bacteriophages) have shown promising results. They are especially suitable to explain and model the subsurface transport of microorganisms.

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