Various ecological waste treatment and utilization systems (EWTUS) available in urban and rural areas in China are described, among which are land treatment and utilization systems (LTUS), eco-pond systems mainly consisting of macrohydrophytes-growing ponds, fish ponds and duck/geese ponds, and comprehensive circulation eco–systems for the treatment and utilization of wastes in rural areas, such as semi–closed eco–system in fish ponds, “rice–fish” and “rice–azolla–fish” symbiotic systems, recycling eco–systems with methane-generating digesters as central link, and comprehensive recycling eco–systems with digesters and eco–ponds as central link.

In the various EWTUS, the sewage and wastewaters and other wastes are utilized and converted into various forms of recoverable resources and/or energy, while they are being purified to good quality effluents, meeting their respective discharge standards, and hence acceptable to receiving waters.

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