For highly urbanized cities with limited potable water resources, reclaimed wastewater may be one of the feasible alternative water sources. Reclaimed wastewater can be used for toilet flushing, cooling, washing, general cleaning and watering plants. It can also be used as process water for industries that manufacture papers, textiles, plastic goods, chemicals, rubber and steel products. Reclaimed wastewater can replace potable water in cooling systems of refineries and as mixing water and curing agent for concrete making.

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