Electrolysis cellss incorporating ion-exchange membranes are used in the chlor-alkali industry. Similar cells may also be used for selective concentration, purification or chemical conversion of aqueous effluents. The Pollution Research Group, University of Natal has applied electrochemical membrane processes to the recovery of sodium hydroxide from textile scour and bottle wash effluents, the removal and neutralisation of sulphuric acid from underground mine water and the removal of ammonium nitrate from effluents arising in a nitrogen chemicals manufacturing complex.

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