Cadmium (Cd) from a zinc mine polluted Jinzu River basin, Toyama prefecture and produced a disease with severe bone pain (Itai-itai disease), from the early part of the 20th century. Cd caused renal tubular dysfunction and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis. The main symptoms of the disease were bone pain, pseud fracture (Looser's zone), fracture, and renal tubular dysfunction. The pollution of paddy-field soil by Cd still remains and our epidemio1ogica1 studies of the inhabitants living in the Cd-polluted areas show the presence of renal tubular dysfunction and decrease of bone mass; characteristic of Itai-itai disease.

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