As interactions between chemical precipitation and biological wastewater treatment are well known, biological phosphate removal should be considered for advanced nutrient removal. A combination of biological phosphate removal and chemical precipitation treatment is sensible and economic, when the precipitation step is used for removal of residual amounts of phosphate.

Improved biological phosphate removal and simultaneous precipitation both give increase in dry solids phosphate content. Assuming a concentration of 0.05 gP/gSS and an effluent suspended solids concentration of 20 mg/l the solids contribution accounts for a Ptot-discharge of 1 mgP/l wastewater. Efficient solid/liquid separation is therefore vital in achieving Ptot-limit values.

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