This paper reviews developments in modelling the kinetics of activated sludge systems: Completely aerobic nitrification, anoxic/aerobic nitrification denitrification (ND), and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic nitrification denitrification biological excess phosphorus removal (NDBEPR) systems. The paper highlights the progress in developing a general NDBEPR activated sludge kinetic model – development of polyP organism enhanced cultures, their kinetics, simplification of the kinetics for enhanced cultures under constant flow and load conditions, extension of the simplified model to mixed culture NDBEPR systems under constant flow and load conditions, integration of the polyP organism enhanced culture kinetics with the ND kinetics to give a general NDBEPR kinetic model for cyclic flow and load which incorporates the increased specific denitrification rates observed in NDBEPR systems compared to ND systems. Areas of research that require attention to complete the development of the general NDBEPR kinetic model are identified – denitrification by polyP organisms, calibration and verification of the model for cyclic flow and load, etc.

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