The use of storage tanks in sewerage systems has increased in recent years. The primary functions of such tanks are to attenuate flow and to retain pollutants within the sewer system. The size of the required storage volume is dependent on the purpose for which the tank is to be used but the end product of any design analysis is the definition of fixed volume of storage which has to be included as part of the sewerage system. The main problem is to provide storage and effective separation of gross and suspended solids without incurring poor self cleansing and associated high maintenance costs.
The work outlined in this paper involved the development of a laboratory computer controlled monitoring system for the purpose of flow visualisation and for the comparative assessment of the sediment deposition and removal performance of different geometric configurations of storage tank. These systems used sophisticated control procedures and the latter had the facility to generate a flow hydrograph of any shape and duration and to superimpose on this hydrograph a pollutograph of synthetic sediment, in this case crushed olive stone wood flour. Particular attention was focused on the optimum length to breadth ratio for a given storage volume, the configuration of the chamber floor - number, shape and gradient of dry weather flow channels and benching (gradient; the type of roof support and the effect of multiple storms on the redistribution of deposited sediment.
The results of the work illustrated that very complex flow patterns were established within the storage tanks as the flow hydrograph was discharged through the system and that these flow patterns governed the sediment settlement, re-entrainment and transport processes in the tank. The velocity distribution within each chamber was a function of tank geometry, the shape, volume, and duration of the inflow hydrograph and the throughflow setting.
The paper is concluded by a series of recommendations to aid the design of storage tanks.