Structured packings are utilized as biomass carriers in new types of biofilm reactors. These systems have been tested and characterized for a wide range of applications, e.g. carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollution removal of domestic wastewater, purification of industrial effluents, etc. Their efficiency is discussed in terms of eliminated loads and suspended solids retention, as well as with respect to the factors influencing the costs of operation: head loss, backwash frequency, sludge water production. Design considerations of full scale units include both process-related parameters and technological aspects.

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