Fibers have a high surface area so many cells can be immobilized and when the fibers are rotated, fast reactions occur. When Celite® is entrapped in the fibers, even more area is provided. Half a pound of Celite® has the area of a football field! Toxic metals can be removed from wastewater. Pulp mill effluent can be cleaned. Phenol is degraded and the sulfur taken out of coal. A non-polluting road deicer is produced which doesn't corrode bridges or cars and ethanol for cars puts less lead into the air and water. When an RBC (rotating biological contactor) is run half full and a light shone in the top, the light hits a thin moving film to degrade dioxin.
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R. Clyde; Cells on Rotating Fibers for Wastewater Treatment. Water Sci Technol 1 November 1992; 26 (9-11): 2505–2506. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1992.0773
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