Dynamic behaviour of microbial film and BOD removal characteristics in an aerobic submerged biofilter packed with ceramic balls were investigated. The effects of BOD loading and temperature on the populations of bacteria and protozoa inhabiting microbial film were investigated. It was ascertained that the BOD removal rate by the microbial film was controlled by the bacterial population, while the microbial concentration in the biofilter was due to the growth of protozoa when the temperature and the BOD loading were low. The analysis of bacterial quinone mixtures was successfully applied to identify the bacterial population in the microbial film.

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