The ability of the biological fluidized bed (BFB) process configuration to intensify biological reaction rates through accumulation of high concentrations of active biomass has brought attention to the technology for the past twenty years. Over 80 commercial, media based BFB reactors have been installed in North America and Europe. Currently there is much interest in systems in which granular activated carbon (GAC) is used as the fluidizing media for treatment of contaminated waters and wastewaters. This paper provides a historical review of the development of the technology together with information on design and commercial application of the technology in North America.

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