The kinetics of nitrogen removal was studied in upflow submerged nitrification and denitrification filters in series. Nitrification followed first-, half-, and zero-order kinetics. For the half-order range the half-order rate constant was about 0.9gNH4-N1/2m−1/2d−1. The zero-order rate constants for the DO ranges of 2-3 mg/L and 4-5 mg/L were found as 0.47 gNH4-Nm−2d−1 and 1.82 gNH4-Nm−2d−1, respectively. In the zero-order region ammonia removal proceeded as a half-order reaction in oxygen concentration and the half-order rate constants were about 1.4-2.7 gO21/2m−1/2d−1. Nitrite accumulation reached a considerable degree at bulk oxygen to bulk ammonia ratios lower than 5 since the formation of nitrate was inhibited. Similar to nitrification half- and zero-order kinetic regions were also observed in denitrification. The half- and zero-order rate constants for carbon unlimited cases (influent COD/NOx-N>5) were about 0.23 gNOx-N1/2m−1/2d−1 and 1.9 gNOx-Nm−2d−1, respectively. The nitrite produced in the nitrification stage could be reduced in denitrification. The removal kinetics in the presence of nitrite was found to be similar to the kinetics when the influent consisted of nitrate only.

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