An integrated approach concerning the causality chain of emission, distribution and effects of toxicants was chosen to analyze the influence of pollution and the impact of historical and future measures in the Rhine basin. All major sources have been quantified and the distribution of nutrients and toxicants is determined by means of a dynamic model. A contaminant accumulation model is linked to this water quality model in order to assess the ecological effects of the compounds in specific areas. This modelling framework is used to analyze effects of cadmium on the foodweb found in Rhine sedimentation areas. Model predictions show that No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) levels for cadmium in algae and small molluscs are not exceeded.

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