Experiments were carried out in a horizontal gravel media filter (GMF) with media size ranging from 5-40 mm. Such gravel-based, sub-surface flow units have been used in both planted and unplanted formats in a range of constructed wetland systems. This GMF was subjected to various hydraulic application rates ranging from 1 m3/(m2.d) to 36 m3/(m2.d) over a twc-year period. The range of suspended solids (SS) concentration was 2-36 mg/l and that of turbidity (NTU) was 3-44 during the experimental period. The average removal of suspended solids varied from 30-86%. It was observed that SS was reduced by a maximum of 86% at an application rate of 13m3/(m2.d), within the above noted SS range. An additional laboratory scale experiment was carried out with artificially grown algae in a vertical perspex tube of 190 mm inner diameter (I.D.) in upward flow condition. Results from the laboratory scale and pilot scale experiments are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates that a constructed wetland format with a subsurface flow and horizontal gravel media component could be used as an alternative method for reducing suspended solids from maturation pond effluent

You do not currently have access to this content.