Removal of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from bleached kraft mill effluent was investigated in laboratory and pilot scale aerobic suspended carrier reactors and abiotic thermo-alkaline reactors.
Laboratory treatment focused on determination of loading capacity of the suspended carrier process and operation of the process at elevated temperature and pH values in order to combine abiotic thermo-alkaline dechlorination and biological treatment in one reactor. At pH 7, 37°C and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) longer than 3.5 hours, a maximum COD removal of 55% was achieved in the suspended carrier process. The COD conversion rate at the minimum HRT was 2.6 kg COD/(m3*d). The suspended carrier treatment was operated successfully at pH 9.0 and 45°C and at pH 7.0 and 50°C with over 50 percent COD removal with a HRT of four hours. The AOX removal achieved at pH 9 and 45°C (50%) was significantly higher than the removal at pH 7 and 37°C (39%), most certainly because of an increased abiotic dechlorination at the higher pH and temperature levels.
Sequential thermo-alkaline and biological treatment were studied on a pilot scale. Tbermo-alkaline treatment at pH 10, 54°C and a HRT of two hours followed by biological treatment at pH 8, 35°C and a HRT of four hours, removed almost 80% of AOX and 50% of COD from the kraft mill effluent.