High suspended solids concentrations are typical for pulp and paper industry treated effluents. A new clarifier model was developed to find the reasons for this problem. The model clarifier is divided into four different zones: inlet, settling, thickening and separation. In the inlet zone sludge is transported by water flow and neither thickening nor settling will happen. When water velocity decreases the main part of the sludge will settle until it reaches the thickening zone. Thickening will continue until the sludge is pumped away from the clarifier. Concentration increase depends on sludge concentration, time and specific thickening coefficient. The minor part, which is specific to the sludge, enters the separation zone and will either settle in the thickening zone or stay in the effluent.
In intensive field studies on 12 different activated sludge processes sludge volume in the clarifier, effluent suspended solids concentrations and sludge settling qualities were examined. Modelled sludge blanket volumes were verified with blanket measurements. Modelled effluent suspended solids were also verified by concentration measurements.
Sludge thickening characteristics can be estimated by DSVI. From the data collected two empirical relationships were noticed between sludge settling properties and process operation. Solids concentration in clarified water depends on settling number, which is the mean number of sludge settling during its residence time in the process (sludge age). Sludge settling properties seem to depend on collision load, which is defined as COD-load divided by return sludge biomass flow.