The production of semiconductors is an extremely complex process involving the deposit of several layers on silicon wafers, patterning the layers through photolithography and adding dopants to alter the conductivity. The process generates gaseous, liquid and solid waste streams consisting of many diverse and toxic components including toxic organics, variable pH, fluoride and arsenic. This paper presents the results of a study which investigated the manufacturing processes of semiconductors, including: generated pollutants, applicable regulations in the USA, waste minimization practices, and waste treatment and disposal alternatives. As part of this investigation, a case study was conducted on the waste generation and management of a semiconductor facility located in the USA.

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