Successful application of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) technology hinges on the generation of sludge aggregating into bio-conglomerates, to facilitate retention of the sludge in the reactor. In this paper an hypothesis for formation of one type of bio-conglomerate, the biopellet, is presented. From the hypothesis, characteristics that a waste must possess to induce pelletization, and process design and operational procedures to optimize system performance, are identified.

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