The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) continue their efforts to address environmental problems, including water quality management, in the context of a transition from the centrally planned to market economies. Their economic recovery and further development is the most pressing and central goal since water quality deterioration is nothing but one of the many consequences of the lack of economic progress. Since international assistance to the CEE countries is limited, an early action should be taken to support the establishment of national financial mechanisms and incentives. To improve water quality, the efficiency of water, energy and material use must be increased in the CEE countries; reducing water use is an imperative. Industrial wastewater management strategy shall distinguish between the old and new enterprises. The non-point pollution sources of agricultural character should largely be controlled by preventive measures, applied jointly by land, water and agricultural specialists and managers. Transformation of industry and agriculture and water quality improvements must be undertaken together.

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