The stabilization pond is one of the more important biological wastewater treatment systems, applied in many countries. An experiment treating wastewater by stabilization ponds under the arid climate of Marrakesh (Morocco) has been underway since 1985. The experimental installation, made from two lined stabilization ponds, received domestic sewage which carried not only the organic load but also a significant bacterial load and other microorganisms. In this new habitat, the cells' bacterial behaviour was affected by various physico-chemical and biological factors. It appears that in such treatment system, known for excessive algal production, the microalgae has evidently an influence on bacterial growth. In this paper, we proposed to appreciate how microalgae essentially: Chlorella (Chlorophyta), Synechococcus andSynechocystis (Cyanobacteria), can affect the behaviour, survival and temporal evolution of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. In wastewater stabilization ponds of Marrakesh high levels of V. cholerae and low concentrations of coliform bacteria were noted during summer periods. This period coincided with a bloom of picocyanobacteria associated with a weak relative abundance of Chlorella. Some interactions tests were carried out with these bacteria and these algae, using a treated wastewater batch culture. Results show that the green algae reduces V. cholerae (pathogenic bacteria) abundances more than E. coli (fecal contamination bacteria) where as better survival of this pathogenic bacteria was noted in presence of Cyanobacteria. The die-off of E. coli appears to be more reduced in presence of Cyanobacteria than Chlorella. Furthermore, the alkaline pH seems to present a more bactericidal effect on E. coli than on V. cholerae. Thus, the Cyanobacteria blooms, associated with a weak percentage of Chlorella abundance, occurring periodically during summer in sewage stabilization ponds of Marrakesh, will be considered as one of the major factors leading to high levels of V. cholerae and low abundances of fecal coliform bacteria during the hot period.

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