While recent years have witnessed dramatic advances in the reduction of aquaculture waste production, primarily due to advances in feed technology, the co-implementation of new bioengineering and biotechnological strategies are vital for alleviating the environmental impact of the rapidly expanding global aquaculture industry. The deployment of a new generation of automated feeding devices, and continued advances in recirculation technologies for land-based systems are amongst the more significant bioengineering advances that have resulted in reduced waste production. Advances in feed technologies will continue to play a pivotal role in the reduction of aquculture waste. Further, the advent of modern recombinant DNA technologies now allows for the economic production of a variety of feed supplements, most notably microbial phytases. Other, often overlooked, biotechnological strategies for achieving improved growth and conversion efficiencies include such physiological modifications as sustained exercise and compensatory growth. Somewhat more controversial biotechnological methods which may be beneficial in reduced waste management include endocrine manipulations and genetic engineering. Again, recent advances in recombinant DNA and transgenic technologies have also led to renewed interest in these strategies.

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