A synopsis of the performance data and design concepts for methods used to upgrade wastewater stabilization pond effluents is presented. The following methods are discussed: intermittent sand filters, rock filters, microstrainers, constructed wetland systems, water hyacinths and duckweed, land application, hydrograph controlled release technique, and others. Cost information is given for the most commonly used methods.
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E. J. Middlebrooks; Upgrading pond effluents: an overview. Water Sci Technol 1 June 1995; 31 (12): 353–368. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0504
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