In order to recover chromium, wastewaters from the chrome-tanning process in two Thai tanneries were coagulated with magnesium oxide or sodium carbonate at various dosages. Different types of polymer were also tried to improve the settleability of the chromium sludge which, in turn, was redissolved by sulfuric acid. The produced chromium III sulfate (Cr2(SO4)3) solution was sufficiently concentrated for direct reuse in the tanning step. The settling pattern of the chromium sludge was also observed and optimum sedimentation periods ranging from 1 to 17 hours were suggested. Under no tanning-additive (a chemical to improve chromium sorption onto hides) circumstances, the discharged wastewater contained 5-11 g Cr2O3/l and the most promising coagulant was MgO at a dose of twice the stoichiometric value and an optimum pH of 7-8. The resulting chromium precipitate or sludge was quite dense (21% solids) and possessed a good settling velocity (234 mm/h), making the decantation process very easy, whereas the corresponding acid requirement for the dissolution process was 1.5 times the stoichiometric value. On the other hand, in the tanning-additive situation, the chromium concentration in the drain was reduced to 3-6 g Cr2O3/l. Magnesium oxide was shown to be also the best coagulant but the dose was two times higher than that of the first circumstance, ie., four times that of stoichiometric requirement.
A bench-scale study on chromium recovery from tanning wastewater
Thongchai Panswad, Orathai Chavalparit, Yaowanud Sucharittham, Sasithorn Charoenwisedsin; A bench-scale study on chromium recovery from tanning wastewater. Water Sci Technol 1 May 1995; 31 (9): 73–81. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0346
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