In a large number of urban watersheds, a combination of upstream approaches for the control of the major CSO pollution sources may be more cost-effective than current end-of-pipe solutions. Source control has been directed largely at the control of rainfall runoff and stormwater flows. This paper concentrates on the control of domestic wastewater as a part of integrated source control by preventing its mixing with storm water in combined sewer systems during rainfall runoff periods, thereby avoiding or reducing CSOs. CSO data from a typical urban watershed of approximately 100 hectares in Cincinnati are used as a prototype for illustration purposes.

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