Public health and safety concerns have traditionally been the main reasons for resisting waste water reuse for fish farming. Potential adverse health effects in such applications could be avoided if the waste is sufficiently treated before reuse. In a full scale demonstration study in Suez, Egypt, about 400 m3/d of raw sewage were treated using a multi-compartment stabilization pond system, for a total residence time from 21-26 days. The treated effluent conformed to WHO guidelines and was used for rearing two types of local fish (tilapia and gray mullet). The produced fish were subjected to an extensive monitoring program. Bacteriological examination revealed that in all samples the fish muscles were free of bacterial contaminants. Nevertheless, low levels of Escherichia coli andAeromonas hydrophila, were isolated from the surface of the fish. Salmonellae, shigellae and staphylococcus aureus were absent from the surface of all the fish sampled. In addition, toxic metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) were found to be at much lower levels than the international advisory limits for human consumption. It is concluded that fish reared in the treated effluent at Suez Experimental Station is (a) suitable for marketing for human consumption, and (b) it's quality is equal or better than fresh water fish in Egypt.
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Research Article| December 01 1995
Public health implications of waste water reuse for fish production
M. El-S. Easa;
M. M. Shereif;
A. I. Shaaban;
Water Sci Technol (1995) 32 (11): 145–152.
M. El-S. Easa, M. M. Shereif, A. I. Shaaban, K. H. Mancy; Public health implications of waste water reuse for fish production. Water Sci Technol 1 December 1995; 32 (11): 145–152. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.1995.0425
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