Large areas in Cairo have been experiencing groundwater and water table rise during the last decade. This has resulted in serious problems to the foundations of old houses, antiquities, and monuments. The main causes behind this rising water table and groundwater is the increased recharge from surface activities in a city experiencing increased population. Major sources of recharge in the urban area included leakage from water supply and sewerage pipes, while in the rural areas the major causes included domestic seepage from septic tanks and deep percolation of excess irrigation water in agricultural areas.
Various studies have been conducted to investigate the possible remedial solutions. The most recent study conducted by the Research Institute for Groundwater indicated that the most effective remedial measure is through the reduction of recharge. This was determined through simulation of various remedial measures.
In this paper, a preliminary assessment of the recently improved sewerage system is made. Results indicate considerable reduction in water table levels and groundwater heads in the region. Final assessment would require a thorough investigation of possible other changes in the environment including both quantitative and qualitative aspects.