Saline intrusion can seriously affect the performance of outfall systems and an understanding of the mechanisms causing intrusion is important in the hydraulic design of outfalls, particularly for deep riser tunnelled outfalls. The paper outlines the reasons for the occurrence of saline intrusion, the problems that arise when it is present and the methods available for prevention and purging. The paper draws on recent work undertaken on the design of a major deep tunnel outfall system using a physical model and outlines some novel methods devised for purging of the system.

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